Copper ore

Copper ore

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Europe

Europe

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RawMinTeam covers with its expertise the whole field of mineral commodity prospection, exploration and evaluation with its geological, mineralogical, chemical, mineral preparation and mining topics. Projects performed in about all continents document this capability. The following presentation gives some examples. The numbers found under the header “results” point to publications or open file reports giving details of the respective projects.

exploration and evaluation of tertiary marls as potential raw material for brick and tile industry

Exploration and evaluation of Tertiary marls as potential raw material for brick and tile industry

Exploration and evaluation of Tertiary marls as potential raw material for brick and tile industry

exploration and evaluation of tertiary marls as potential raw material for brick and tile industry

Goal:
Exploration and evaluation of Tertiary marls as potential raw material for brick and tile industry.

Result:
The exploration drillings and mineralogical studies resulted in a positive evaluation of a deposit of more than 2 billion tons of very valid marls. The deposit is already in a production state.

Comment:
The very good quality of the marls combined with the amount of reserves gives the local brick company a market safety at least for the next 20 years. Particularly bricks of very high porosity for the future high tech products according to the actual and very strict energy saving European laws are in the requirements to these carbonate rich raw materials. During heating the bricks up to 940°C this material looses the CO2 of the carbonates resulting in a highly porous brick texture with very low grades of thermal conductivity. Reactions of the MgO and CaO of the carbonates with silica minerals guarantee also a very high compression strength.

Germany – Eastern Bavaria

ore microscopy investigation of copper ores

Ore microscopy investigation of copper ores

Ore microscopy investigation of copper ores

ore microscopy investigation of copper ores

Goal:
Ore microscopy investigation of copper ores.

Result:
The ore samples show a rich copper mineralisation mainly of copper carbonates (malachite and azurite) in paragenesis to iron oxides.

Comment:
Small scaled copper ores in Niger show a wide range of hydrothermal ore formations including Cu-Carbonates, Cu-Sulfides and Fe-Oxides, partly connected to interesting Ag-Sb-Au-contents. Until now the occurrences are too small scaled for mining activities. Further investigation has to be done.

Niger – West Africa

characterisation of rare earth element mineralisation in lateritic overburden and in the alkali volcanic basement

Characterisation of rare earth element mineralisation in lateritic overburden and in the alkali volcanic basement

Characterisation of rare earth element mineralisation in lateritic overburden and in the alkali volcanic basement

characterisation of rare earth element mineralisation in lateritic overburden and in the alkali volcanic basement

Goal:
Characterisation of rare earth element mineralisation in lateritic overburden and in the alkali volcanic basement.

Result:
The rare earth element mineralisation shows a wide range from oxidized lateritic types of weathered crusts, even ionic bondage to clay minerals and in primary volcanic rocks could be detected.

Comment:
Various methods including scanning electron microscopy (pictures above), optical microscopy of thin and polished sections and microprobe analysis provided detailed information, showing mainly CeO2 and ionic bonded REE to clay minerals in the weathered crusts up to very complex REE-fluoro-carbonates and -phosphates in the primary magmatic and volcanic basement rocks in different weathering stages. Elution and preparation work is in progress for extraction and exploitation of the REE to the world market. Pictures above show bright lamellar Rare earth mineral intergrowth of REE-carbonates like parasite, an synchisite in a fine grained alkali-silica matrix, with an SEM – element distribution pattern.

Madagascar

chemical and mineralogical investigation of quartz was performed for evaluation of the potentials in the high purity quartz market

Chemical and mineralogical investigation of quartz was performed for evaluation of the potentials in the high purity quartz market

Chemical and mineralogical investigation of quartz was performed for evaluation of the potentials in the high purity quartz market

chemical and mineralogical investigation of quartz was performed for evaluation of the potentials in the high purity quartz market

Goal:
Chemical and mineralogical investigation of quartz was performed for evaluation of the potentials in the high purity quartz market.

Result:
The metamorphic and pegmatitic quartz occurrences in the Precambrian basement of Saudi Arabia show qualities up to process silica metal products and for optical silica products. High purity quartz in it´s narrow classification parameters was not found up to now, mainly due to the quite high aluminium contents in the quartz lattice.

Comment:
Scanning electron microscopy of thin and polished sections, fluid inclusion studies and cathodoluminescence analyses were carried out, parallel to detailed chemical analyses of very different prepared quartz samples (e.g. magnetic, heavy mineral separation). None of the samples taken during an intense field study showed finally the results necessary for high purity quartz definition.

Saudi Arabia

proof of platinum group minerals in ultrabasic rock areas

Proof of platinum group minerals in ultrabasic rock areas by field work and analysis of rock and stream sediment samples

Proof of platinum group minerals in ultrabasic rock areas by field work and analysis of rock and stream sediment samples

proof of platinum group minerals in ultrabasic rock areas

Goal:
Proof of platinum group minerals in ultrabasic rock areas by field work and analysis of rock and stream sediment samples.

Result:
Analysis of stream sediment and rock samples determined the occurrence of PGM in the areas of alpine type ultrabasic rocks and adjacent stream sediments.

Comment:
Wide-ranged sampling of harzburgites, chromitites and stream sediments of the same areas could proof for the first time the occurrence of many different platinum group mineral types not only in the host rocks but more often in the stream sediments of SW Turkey. Mainly alloys of Pt-Os-Ir and Pt-Fe were found by panning and intense microscopic investigation. Rarely PGM of sulphide type (e.g. laurite) could be determined, too. As far as it can be estimated a highly profit mining cannot be foreseen but a prospection tool can be easily established for other promising areas out of this project. SEM and microscopy pictures above show intergrowths of partly idiomorphic PGM of stream sediment samples.

Marmaris-Dalaman-Fethiye areas – SW-Turkey

characterisation of gold mineralization types in various sulphide ores

Characterisation of gold mineralization types in various sulphide ores

Characterisation of gold mineralization types in various sulphide ores

characterisation of gold mineralization types in various sulphide ores

Goal:
Characterisation of gold mineralization types in various sulphide ores.

Result:
Several occurrences partly with very high gold contents were investigated.

Comment:
In ancient times (e.g. Krösus) these gold occurrences have been mined mainly in the alluvial deposits to build up political and economical power already a long time ago.
Paleocoic to recent mineralisation types of magmatic, metamorphic and epithermal origin could be determined and characterized in the Menderes Massive of Western Turkey. Associations with antimony, arsenic and tungsten minerals could be proofed. Small scaled mining by villagers are in progress, too.
Picture above shows gold with antimony in paragenesis hosted in pyrite (polished section).

Menderes Massive, W -Turkey

distribution of REE bearing minerals in the laterite profile on top of carbonatites

Rare Earths in laterite

Rare Earths in laterite

distribution of REE bearing minerals in the laterite profile on top of carbonatites

Goal:
Distribution of REE-bearing minerals in the laterite profile on top of carbonatites

Result:
REE content and type of REE minerals depends on the stratigraphy of the laterite profile and the underlying carbonantitic rocks

Comment:
Leaching tests and element separation in laboratory scale by mixer/settler technology gave very positive results. The project, however, did not reach an industrial scale.

Brazil

distribution of REE bearing minerals in the laterite profile on top of carbonatites02

Rare Earths in laterite

Rare Earths in laterite

distribution of REE bearing minerals in the laterite profile on top of carbonatites02

Goal:
Distribution of REE-bearing minerals in the laterite profile on top of carbonatites

Result:
REE content and type of REE minerals depends from the stratigraphy of the laterite profile and the underlying carbonantitic rocks

Comment:
Leaching tests and element separation in laboratory scale by mixer/settler technology did gave very positive results but the project did not reach an industrial scale.

Brazil

petrography of high priced blue quartzite

Petrography of high-priced blue quartzite

Petrography of high-priced blue quartzite

petrography of high priced blue quartzite

Goal:
Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of lazulite-bering quartzite

Result:
The blue colour of the quartzite is given by the minerals lazulite and dumortierite. Both minerals are very resistant against weathering.

Comment:
In the high-priced natural stone business it is important to offer complete information to the customer about the nature of the stones and to guarantee in this way a very high resistance to weathering or abrasion.

Brazil

niobium resources

Niobium resources

Niobium resources

niobium resources

Goal:
Distribution of pyrochlore as the main niobium carrier in laterite

Result:
The pyrochlore content and its chemical composition did justify a very positive technical and economic evaluation of the deposit.

Comment:
The positive geological and economic evaluation did not compensate the political and security problems.

Africa

gold mining and prospection

Gold mining and prospection

Gold mining and prospection

gold mining and prospection

Goal:
Evaluation of a gold prospect

Result:
Interesting gold contents in the soil samples would justify a drilling/trenching campaign.

Comment:
Access to the prospect in tropical forest only by “horsepower” and social problems due to small scale gold mining by locals.

Ecuador

columbite and tantalite

Columbite and tantalite (coltan)

Columbite and tantalite (coltan)

columbite and tantalite

Goal:
Identification of the potential of pegmatites as columbite and tantalite sources by geochemical indicators

Result:
Geochemical indicators resulted to be a valuable tool for the evaluation of the potential tantalum mineralization of pegmatites

Comment:
The very coarse size of the minerals and irregular zoning that is typical for highly differentiated pegmatites makes the evaluation of the grade and reserves with conventional methods, such as drilling and trenching, unreliable.

Brazil

rare metal pegmatites

Rare metal pegmatites

Rare metal pegmatites

rare metal pegmatites

Goal:
Selection of pegmatites with columbite/tantalite mineralization

Result:
Use of appropriate geochemical methods can give in pegmatite fields a fast and rather reliable indication of the differentiation grade and the connected type of mineralization of individual pegmatites

Comment:
Use of geochemical indicators is highly recommended in order to speed up the evaluation of the different pegmatites present in pegmatite fields and provinces.

Brazil

high purity quartz

High purity quartz

High purity quartz

high purity quartz

Goal:
Supply of high purity quartz to the glass and silicium producing industry

Result:
Good quality, but low reserves and production

Comment:
Requirement for high purity quartz are very stringent. Optical evaluation and consequently also optical sorting cannot detect lattice-bound impurities that are not documented in colour changes. Evaluation of the potentially high purity quartz occurrences needs a series of rather sophisticated analyses.

Brazil

high purity quartz02

High purity quartz

High purity quartz

high purity quartz02

Goal:
Quality check of quartz suppliers

Result:
Positive

Comment:
The quality check in the production of high purity quartz is rather expensive due to the necessity to use highly sophisticated analytical and optical equipment.

Brazil

dimension stone

Dimension stone

Dimension stone

dimension stone

Goal:
Evaluation of the mining method and quality of rose coloured marbel

Result:
Mining was not up to date

Comment:
Good quality but poor mining experience and unsatisfied customers

Brazil

beach sands

Beach sands

Beach sands

beach sands

Goal:
Inspection of beach sand deposits as REE supply

Result:
Good potential

Comment:
The most important point to check in the evaluation of beach sands in tropical and subtropical beach setting is the environmental aspect.

India

precious stone mining

Precious stone mining

Precious stone mining

precious stone mining

Goal:
Visit to the emerald mining areas

Result:
Typical mining through small mining cooperatives of individual miners (Garimpeiros)

Comment:
Emerald mining, such as most of other precious stone mining, is typically recommendably a small mining job.

Brazil

precious stone mining02

Precious stone mining

Precious stone mining

precious stone mining02

Goal:
Visit to different emerald mining areas

Result:
Typical mining through small mining cooperatives of individual miners (Garimpeiros)

Brazil

dimension stone02

Dimension stone

Dimension stone

dimension stone02

Goal:
Evaluation of different stone pits of blue sodalite syenite

Result:
Excellent material, but problems in extraction of solid big sized blocks

Comment:
Estimation of the reserves in solid stone material of good colour and homogeneity is difficult in this specific case.

Brazil

lithium bearing pegmatites

Lithium-bearing pegmatites

Lithium-bearing pegmatites

lithium bearing pegmatites

Goal:
Examination of the spodumene mineralisation of different pegmatites

Result:
Spodumene crystals in most cases of very big size and therefore easy to separate, but probably small size of the mineralized pegmatites

Comment:
Evaluation is ongoing

Brazil

lithium bearing pegmatites02

Lithium-bearing pegmatites

Lithium-bearing pegmatites

lithium bearing pegmatites02

Goal:
Examination of the spodumene mineralisation of different pegmatites f

Result:
Spodumene crystals in most cases of very big size and therefore easy to separate, but probably small size of the mineralized pegatites

Comment:
Evaluation is ongoing

Brazil

beach sands02

Beach sands

Beach sands

beach sands02

Goal:
Inspection of beach sand deposits as REE supply

Result:
Good potential

Comment:
The most important point to check in the evaluation of beach sands in tropical and subtropical beach setting is the environmental aspect.

India

beach sands03

Beach sands

Beach sands

beach sands03

Goal:
Inspection of beach sand deposits as REE supply

Result:
Good potential

Comment:
The most important point to check in the evaluation of beach sands in tropical and subtropical beach setting is the environmental aspect.

India

gold mining

Gold mining

Gold mining

gold mining

Goal:
Advice in the improvement of as artisanal low cost gold ore dressing plant

Result:
Recovery was markedly improved

Comment:
Technical aid project

Ecuador

quarrying of stone

Quarrying of stone

Quarrying of stone

quarrying of stone

Goal:
Evaluation of high-priced blue lazulite-bearing quartzite occurrences.

Result:
The investigations resulted in a positive evaluation of one of the occurrences. All other showed to low reserves of marketable dimension stones and/or high logistic expenses.

Comment: The central point in the evaluation of the occurrence of dimension stones for the production of tiles is the estimation of the probability that the deposit will offer dimension stones of suitable size and homogeneity. In this context not only geological expertise, but also experience in mining and market requirements are needed.

Madagaskar

small scale pegmatite mining

Small scale pegmatite mining

Small scale pegmatite mining

small scale pegmatite mining

Goal:
Mining oriented genetic study.

Result:
The multi-method study revealed a genesis closely related to carbonatites.

Comment:
Mica was until the 50-ties a requested commodity. Madagascar was with its small mica mines one of the main supplier of the world mica market. Nowadays the mines are closed or abandoned. The study was directed to unravel the unusual genesis of the mica-bearing pegmatites and to examine the presence of so far not realized presence of rare earth elements in these rocks .

Madagaskar

alluvial gold mining

Alluvial gold mining

Alluvial gold mining

alluvial gold mining

Goal:
Inspection of existing small scale gold mining fields in order to get first information about the local social frame and the evaluation of a potential primary gold deposit at depth.

Result:
The results were very different according the local geology and social/political situation.

Comment:
Small scale gold mining, mostly as alluvial gold mining, is typical and still ongoing in many African and Southern American countries. Its potential as sign for a rich mineralization at depth is not reliable. Exploration in such areas needs dependable agreements with the local communities.

Madagaskar

mineral preparation

Mineral preparation

Mineral preparation

mineral preparation

Goal:
Development of suitable mineral dressing

Result:
RawMinTeam provides one stop shop mineral dressing solutions on the basis of the expertise of the own staff members and related companies and labs.

Comment:
The development of economically viable and marked oriented mineral dressing procedures is one of the main keys for the success in the start and ongoing mining operation. An important point in the development of mineral dressing schemes is the accurate chemical and mineralogical analysis of the ores.

Mexico

exploration in historical gold fields

Exploration in historical gold fields

Exploration in historical gold fields

exploration in historical gold fields

Goal:
Evaluation of the chances for a revitalization of gold mining in historical gold mining areas.

Result:
The scattered small mining places showed only in the oxidation zone satisfactory gold contents. The primary mineralization was very poor and the logistics in the desert extremely expensive.

Comment:
Revitalization of old historical mining places inspired in the last years a lot of interest. In most cases the mineralization resulted to be of small size and the gold content, if at all, satisfactory only in the cementation zone. In the case of underground mining the old adits and shafts are too small to allow low transportation costs and the use of modern equipment.

Sudan

artisanal mineral preparation

Artisanal mineral preparation

Artisanal mineral preparation

artisanal mineral preparation

Goal:
Collection of concentrate.

Results:
In the case of tin, columbite/tantalite (coltan) and other high priced mineral commodities the purchase of the concentrate by reliable local residents is a good choice.

Comment:
In such projects the social, security and political aspects are of paramount importance.

Bolivia

rare metals in polymetallic mineralizations in the Andes

Rare metals in polymetallic mineralizations in the Andes

Rare metals in polymetallic mineralizations in the Andes

rare metals in polymetallic mineralizations in the Andes

Goal:
Evaluation of the content of rare metals in selected polymetallic mineralizations.

Results:
The study was very interesting under a scientific point of view.

Comment:
The financing permitted only a limited effort in the field and the lab. Nevertheless the results have been rather promising and it could be interesting to implement the study.

Andes

geological ground check of satellite imagery

Geological ground check of satellite imagery

Geological ground check of satellite imagery

geological ground check of satellite imagery

Goal:
Ground check of the geological interpretation of satellite images in arid areas of North Africa.

Results:
In spite of the very low quality of the satellite imagery and more or less inexistent topographic maps a rather good geological map of the very large area could be produced.

Comment:
The nowadays available satellite imagery and GPS localization speeds up the field work and gives very accurate results.

Sudan

historical mining sites

Historical mining sites

Historical mining sites

historical mining sites

Goal:
Helicopter supported reconnaissance.

Results:
Mapping of sites and first geological check.

Comment:
Rapid but rather expensive method.

Sudan

emerald mining

Emerald mining

Emerald mining

emerald mining

Goal:
Evaluation of the emerald mineralization left in situ by ancient miners in North Africa

Results:
Gemmy emerald crystals have been rarely found. Most of the material was of no or only very subordinate commercial value due to cloudiness and brittle deformation of the emerald crystals.

Comment:
The big size of the old diggings was very surprising in view of the low quality of the emeralds. The old people did obviously not have the high quality requirements of nowadays. This is demonstrated by the mostly very low quality of the precious stones used in medieval time and antiquity.

Egypt

geothermals springs

Geothermal springs

Geothermal springs

geothermals springs

Goal:
Research project directed to examine the possible relation of the geothermal springs in the central Andes and the polymetallic mineralization.

Results:
The chemical and isotopic analyses do not reliable demonstrate the relation between polymetallic mineralization and thermal spring.

Comment:
The original idea was not confirmed, but interesting water-rock interaction processes could be demonstrated.

Bolivia

scaling in pipes of geothermal water wells

Scaling in pipes of geothermal water wells

Scaling in pipes of geothermal water wells

scaling in pipes of geothermal water wells

Goal:
Determination of the textures and composition of scales transporting high entropy fuids.

Results:
In the present case the scales resulted to be stibnite (Sb2S3), metastibnite, calcite and silica.

Comment:
The precipitation of stibnite makes the fluids potential ore bearing, this also in view of the stibnite mineralization found in the proximity of the geothermal water wells.

Unspecified

Water is the most essential compound for all life on earth. Its protection, exploration, exploitation and sustainable usage as well as its purification are our main goals. To fulfil those aims, interdisciplinary expertise in hydrology, geology, mineralogy, advanced water analytics and civil engineering is necessary, which is covered by RawMinTeam.

groundwater flow and recharge

Groundwater flow and recharge in regional karstic systems

Groundwater flow and recharge in regional karstic systems

groundwater flow and recharge

Goal:
Evaluation of groundwater flow and mean residence times in karstic systems

Results:
Quantification of the groundwater flow and residence times in the unsaturated zone by advanced isotope techniques

Comments:
A regional groundwater study in karstic aquifer systems of southwestern Germany was conducted to evaluate the hydrologic system of this important drinking water reservoir and to secure the protection of it. Thereby the groundwater was sampled at different springs and wells and analysed for their chemical and isotopic composition. These results combined with the hydraulic conditions gave valuable information about the infiltration areas and the residence times in the unsaturated soil zone before reaching the karstic aquifer.

SW-Germany

multiple use of geothermal energy

Multiple use of geothermal energy

Multiple use of geothermal energy

multiple use of geothermal energy

Goal:
Concept and realisation of the multiple use of geothermal energy.

Results:
Exploitation of thermal water and use for energy-, heat- and CO2-production and for bathing.

Comments:
The idea of using thermal water for multiple uses at this location in SW Austria was born in 1996. Geophysical exploration and drilling was conducted and artesian thermal water with a temperature of 108°C was found in a depth of 2.800 m below surface and produced. Due to the high content of CO2, a normal pumping was not possible. Therefore an inhibitor with multiple requirements was found to avoid any precipitations in the borehole and enable the production of the thermal water. In the following years concepts for the production of energy, heat and CO2 were realized and the water is now also used for bathing in an out-door swimming pool in a very scenic hotel complex designed by Friedensreich Hundertwasser.

Bad Blumau, SW-Austria

analyses of radioactive and stable isotopes

Analyses of radioactive and stable isotopes in water, gases and solids

Analyses of radioactive and stable isotopes in water, gases and solids

analyses of radioactive and stable isotopes

Goal and Results:
Determination of mean residence times of groundwater and the genesis and evolution of dissolved constituents, gases and solids.

Comments:
The determination of stable isotopes of different compounds give valuable information about their origin, genesis and evolution. For example, the determination of 2H- and 13C values of methane provide information about the formation conditions and source of natural gas. Additionally, the determination of natural and anthropogenic radionucleides, provide for example information about groundwater residence times and the provenance of compounds like CO2 (biogenic vs. fossil).

Hydroisotop GmbH, Germany (www.hydroisotop.de)

selective removal of arsenic and uranium

Selective removal of arsenic and uranium from mineral water

Selective removal of arsenic and uranium from mineral water

selective removal of arsenic and uranium

Goal:
Conceptual design of a filter plant to remove arsenic and uranium from mineral water.

Results:
Planning, construction and operation of a filter plant.

Comments:
Many ground waters worldwide contain arsenic and uranium, which are brought into the water by rock-water interaction processes. The threshold values for arsenic and uranium regarding to the European Drinking Water Ordinance are 15 µg/l and 10 µg/l, respectively. The WHO recommends guidance values of 10 µg/l for As and 15 µg/l for U. Arsenic and uranium can be selectively removed by granular mineral filter minerals, which is accredited for the use in drinking and mineral waters. Those materials are used in through flow filter tanks. The members of RawMinTeam planed and realised such filtering plants already all over the world.

Worldwide

tracer test for the evaluation of river filtrate

Tracer test for the evaluation of river filtrate in ground water

Tracer test for the evaluation of river filtrate in ground water

tracer test for the evaluation of river filtrate

Goal:
Quantification of the proportion and infiltration rate of river water in ground water.

Results:
Quantification of the proportion of river water and determination of its flow time to an adjacent drinking water well.

Comments:
Tracer tests, using either colour, salt or isotope tracers are a valid tool to quantify the infiltration of river water in groundwater aquifers. This is necessary to protect those aquifers and the drinking water supply from anthropogenic contaminants. Natural and artificial tracers are also a valuable tools to get information about flow paths of and leakages of water in natural ground water systems and in building installations.

S-Germany

evaluation of Russian mineral water companies

Evaluation of Russian mineral water companies

Evaluation of Russian mineral water companies

evaluation of Russian mineral water companies

Goal:
Import of Russian bottled mineral water into the EU.

Result:
Expertise about the conditions of the visited mineral water producers.

Comments:
The aim of the project was to evaluate mineral water production companies located in the Kaukasus area to prepare the import of the water into the EU. Therefore the companies, plants and water production were examined with respect to the European standards.
Additionally the filled mineral waters were analysed and the results compared to the specifications done by the producer.

 

S-Russia

regional aquifer study in the alps

Regional aquifer study in the Alps

Regional aquifer study in the Alps

regional aquifer study in the alps

Goal:
Determination of the infiltration area, flow paths and in mean residence times of groundwater in a high-altitude mountain region.

Results:
Evaluation of the origin of ground water and its residence times and recommendations for the sustainable use of the drinking water wells.

Comments:
The water supply in villages and towns in high-altitude regions are assigned to springs and creeks, which conduct mostly young to very young water (mean residence times of days to months). Due to the lack of time the water residence in the filtrating soil zone, this water can be influenced by microbial and organic contamination and its availability is strongly influenced by seasonal variations. Therefore in such regions it is the goal to develop groundwater aquifers, which are not influenced by those effects. In this study the groundwater “age” composition was determined by 14C, 3H and 85Kr and the altitude of infiltration was determined by 18O and 2H analyses of the water. Additionally, the dissolved constituents were analysed and the provenance of dissolved SO4 and TIC was evaluated by isotope methods. Combined with the hydraulic data this study gave good insights in the groundwater circulation in this high-altitude mountain terrain.

Switzerland

origin of groundwater infiltrating in a new constructed tunnel

Origin of groundwater infiltrating in a new constructed tunnel

Origin of groundwater infiltrating in a new constructed tunnel

origin of groundwater infiltrating in a new constructed tunnel

Goal:
Determination of the origin of groundwater infiltrating in a newly excavated road tunnel

Results:
Evaluation of the origin of seepage water in tunnel galleries and recommendations for the sealing of the water-conducting fractures.

Comments:
The excavation of tunnels is always a main iimpact in the hydrogeological environment. Therefore the infiltration of water is monitored in newly excavated tunnels and the water analysed for their dissolved constituents, isotopy and age distribution. This provides information about the origin of the water and potential changes in its composition. Additionally, springs in the overlying area are monitored, sampled and analysed to guarantee their protection against the influence of the artificially formed recharge by the tunnel.

N-Italy

hydrochemistry and radioactive monitoring of thermal water during pumping tests

Hydrochemistry and radioactive monitoring of thermal water during pumping tests

Hydrochemistry and radioactive monitoring of thermal water during pumping tests

hydrochemistry and radioactive monitoring of thermal water during pumping tests

Goal:
Determination of the hydrochemistry of thermal water and the emission of radionuclides during a pumping test.

Results:
Planning, realisation and evaluation of thermal water sampling, analyses and a radioactive on site monitoring.

Comments:
Thermal water pumped from several thousands of meters of depth with temperatures up to 160°C has to be sampled under in situ pressure and temperature conditions and analysed for their dissolved constituents, gas and isotopic compositions. In this project the thermal water, pumped from a depth of 3400 m below surface with a temperature of 140°C was sampled and analysed during the pumping test. The results were interpreted combined with the hydrogeological data sets. Additionally a radioactive monitoring in the area surrounding the free discharging thermal water was conducted.

SW-Germany

conservation and improvement of the transmissivity of water conducting fractures in carbonate rocks

Conservation and improvement of the transmissivity of water-conducting fractures in carbonate rocks

Conservation and improvement of the transmissivity of water-conducting fractures in carbonate rocks

conservation and improvement of the transmissivity of water conducting fractures in carbonate rocks

Goal:
The conservation and improvement of the transmissivity of water-conducting fractures by impregnation of reinjected water with CO2.

Results:
ongoing project

Comments:
In the long term operation of geothermal plants it is likely that the transmissivity of water-conducting fractures in the area of the reinjection decreases with time due to precipitations in the fracture. To conserve the status and even improve it, it is attempted to impregnate the cooled down water with CO2 before reinjection. Therefore the concepts and modelling calculations are done and the influence of CO2 on the reservoir rock material will now be evaluated in first tests stimulating the conditions in the reservoir.

S-Germany

mineralogical and chemical characterisation of steel pipes and adjacent secondary crusts

Mineralogical and chemical characterisation of steel pipes and adjacent secondary crusts

Mineralogical and chemical characterisation of steel pipes and adjacent secondary crusts

mineralogical and chemical characterisation of steel pipes and adjacent secondary crusts

Goal:
Mineralogical and chemical characterisation of steel pipes and adjacent secondary crusts.

Result:
The mainly iron hydroxide - calcite crusts show clear connections to a decomposition of steel pipe units used in a combination of different pipe systems.

Comment:
In old buildings with reconstruction events pipes of different steel compounds and qualities are often used in the same system. Therefore the water chemistry (CO2, ion contents and alkalinity) has influences in decomposition of steel pipes. A further consequence is the redeposition of the dissolved iron as a kind of “arteriosclerosis” in the pipe system.

Munich – Germany

The protection of the environment in the modern mining industry is one of the major challenges. Our duty is to realise ecological sensitive mining concepts. In case of anthropogenic contaminations we use advanced methods to evaluate those and offer sustainable decontamination procedures.

radioactivity in coal mine spoils and dust from an open pit mine

Radioactivity in coal, mine spoils and dust from an open pit mine

Radioactivity in coal, mine spoils and dust from an open pit mine

radioactivity in coal mine spoils and dust from an open pit mine

Goal:
Determination of the origin of radionuclides in dust in a town close to an open pit coal mine.

Results:
Sampling, analyses and expertise regarding the origin of radionuclides in dust.

Comments:
In this work it was evaluated, if radionuclides in dust in a town close to a coal open pit mine are related to the coal mining activities. Therefore the activities of the radionuclides 226,228Ra, 210Pb, 228,230Th, 40K, 234,238U and 210Po were analysed on coal material, soil in the surrounding area and dust collected in the adjacent town and compared to each other.

E-Germany

Characterisation of matrix pore water and gases

Characterisation of matrix pore water and gases

Characterisation of matrix pore water and gases

Characterisation of matrix pore water and gases

Goal:
Characterisation of pore water and palaeohydrological history  dissolved in pore water in crystalline bedrock of a potential site for a radioactive waste repository.

Results:
Sampling and extraction of pore water and gases dissolved in pore water from crystalline rocks and interpretation of the results with respect to the palaeohydrological history of the investigation site.

Comments:
In several countries investigations for finding an appropriate site for the storage of radioactive waste are going on. Therefore multidisciplinary studies on the potential host rocks and existing water systems have to be conducted. In this context, pore water, residing in the inter- and intragranular pore space have to be characterised using naturally saturated drillcore sections, because pore water is the first water, which comes into contact with the technical barrier. Due to the exchange by diffusion of pore water with advective flowing ground water, pore water in low permeable bedrock forms a good archive for the palaeohydrological history of an investigation site.

Finland

analyses of gases in the environment

Analyses of gases in the environment

Analyses of gases in the environment

analyses of gases in the environment

Goal:
Evaluation of the origin, genesis and evolution of gases in the environment.

Results:
Quantification and interpretation of gases from the gas, liquid, and solid phase.

Comments:
The source of emission of gases in the environment can be evaluated by analysing the gas composition and isotope signatures of the individual gas species. Hence the source and genesis as well as processes of the production of different gases can be evaluated.

Hydroisotop GmbH (Germany)

heavy metals input and distribution in soils of shooting ranges

Heavy metals (Antimony and Lead) input and distribution in soils of shooting ranges

Heavy metals (Antimony and Lead) input and distribution in soils of shooting ranges

heavy metals input and distribution in soils of shooting ranges

Goal:
Evaluation of a potential immobilisation and intake of antimony in the soil zone from bullets in army shooting ranges.

Results:
Quantification and modelling of the antimony intake in soils and investigation of antimony phases in the soil and around the bullets.

Comments:
In Swiss shooting ranges several millions of bullets fired on army shooting ranges all over the country every year. The mobilisation and distribution of antimony and lead, the two main constituents of the bullets cores, were investigated by analysing the elemental distribution in weathered bullets, in the soil and in surface- and groundwater around and on different shooting ranges. The work showed that a majority of the Sb is bound in secondary iron phases directly around the bullets.

Switzerland

concept for water keeping in and around active open pit borecole mining

Concept for water keeping in and around active open pit borecole mining

Concept for water keeping in and around active open pit borecole mining

concept for water keeping in and around active open pit borecole mining

Goal:
Conceptualisation and realisation of water keeping in and around an active open pit mine

Results:
Compiling of a concept for the water keeping in and around an active open pit borecole mine.

Comments:
Open pit mines have mostly a significant influence on the hydrologic groundwater systems, changing for example groundwater potentials. Therefore the ingress of groundwater in open pit mines and the surrounding and underlying groundwater systems have to be monitored during and after the operation of open pit mines.

Germany

determination of the source of CHC contamination of ground water

Determination of the source of CHC contamination of ground water and the evaluation of natural attenuation

Determination of the source of CHC contamination of ground water and the evaluation of natural attenuation

determination of the source of CHC contamination of ground water

Goal:
Determination of the origin and natural attenuation of CHCs in ground water.

Results:
Interpretation of stable isotope signatures of CHCs to identify the polluter of a contamination and the grade of natural attenuation of the pollutants.

Comments:
The exact source and number of sources of CHC, PAH, BTX and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in groundwater can be investigated by the determination of the carbon-, hydrogen-, and chlorine isotope signatures of those compounds. Additionally, isotope investigations are the only way to quantify natural attenuation of organic contaminants in ground water systems.

Germany

Waste and dump material forms a huge reservoir for secondary raw materials. The activation of such secondary ores are one of the main human duties in the next decades.

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Recycling of used filter material

Recycling of used filter material

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Goal:
Concept and realisation of recycling of use filter material.

Results:
ongoing project

Comments:
High amounts of filter material for the selective removal of contaminants used in drinking and waste water plants accumulate every year. In this work, concepts for the regeneration and/or recycling of such material are developed and tested.

Germany

control of proportion of renewable material in wood heating plants

Control of proportion of renewable material in wood heating plants

Control of proportion of renewable material in wood heating plants

control of proportion of renewable material in wood heating plants

Goal:
Quantification of the proportion of renewable material in burning material.

Results:
Quantification of the concentration of 14C in burning material by fully combustion.

Comments:
In the course of the energy revolution towards renewable energy sources, renewable raw materials are now used as burning material in heating plants and as additives in fuel. The proportion and origin of such renewable raw material can be quantified by isotope methods on solid, liquid and gaseous samples before and after combustion.

Germany

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